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Methods and Instrumentation

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The development of new x-ray sources has always pushed the development of new instrumentation and methods to make optimal use of the new properties of the source. Hard X-ray Free Electron Lasers are no exception. The PULSE groups transfer and adapt methods developed for storage ring sources to meet the challenges of FELs. In particular X-ray optics need to deliver the large peak brightness to the experiment and detectors need to be able to collect at the operational rate of the pulsed source to account for the pulse by pulse source fluctuations.

The new opportunities to use the full spectral content of a single pulse for x-ray spectroscopies which have been traditionally pursued with monochromatic beams is a focus of our efforts. Further extending the time resolution that FELs naturally enable is another important direction where technical solutions are needed. Lastly, and perhaps most important, is the development of diagnostic tools to provide a full account of the x-ray beam that is incident on the sample on a pulse by pulse basis as well as the relative timing between sample excitations and x-ray probes.